International Journal of Emerging Multidisciplinaries: Mathematics

Editorial Policies

The Journal adheres to the guidelines set by the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE) in order to maintain a rigorous review process. By submitting a manuscript to the journal, all authors are confirming that they have thoroughly read and accepted its content, and that the manuscript aligns with the journal's policies.


It is necessary for you and your co-authors to provide a comprehensive list of all pertinent affiliations to properly acknowledge the institutions where the research or scholarly work was approved, supported, or carried out.

  • For non-research articles, you are required to specify your present institutional affiliation.
  • In the event that you have relocated to a different institution prior to the publication of the article, you should indicate the affiliation where the work was conducted and include a note indicating your current affiliation.
  • If you do not currently have a relevant institutional affiliation, you should clearly state that you are an independent researcher.

Appeals and complaints

The journal strictly adheres to the guidelines outlined by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) when handling appeals against journal editor decisions and addressing complaints regarding the editorial management of the peer review process.

We genuinely welcome appeals to editor decisions from authors. However, it is important to note that a successful appeal requires the submission of strong evidence or new data/information that directly addresses the comments provided by the editor and reviewers.

It is worth noting that appeals for scholarly articles of an opinion-based nature are less likely to result in overturning the editor's decision. Such articles often include viewpoints and opinion pieces where the editor's judgment on readability and relevance carries significant weight. Nonetheless, it is crucial for all opinion-led articles to be well-supported by evidence and fully referenced. When submitting opinion-led articles, authors should consistently present their evidence and provide an explanation of how it influenced the formation of their opinion.

It is uncommon for editors to receive frequent appeals, and they rarely reverse their original decisions. Therefore, if your manuscript receives a rejection decision, we strongly advise you to consider submitting it to another suitable journal. The decision to reject a manuscript for publication is often based on the editor's assessment of its priority and importance, aspects that authors typically cannot address through an appeal. However, if you genuinely believe that there is a compelling case for an appeal, please follow the instructions provided below. We value transparency and fairness in our editorial processes, and we are committed to providing a platform that upholds the highest standards of publication ethics.


Contributors who played a role in the creation of a manuscript, such as providing general supervision, securing funding, designing the study, collecting and analyzing data, offering technical assistance, assisting with writing and formatting, engaging in scholarly discussions that significantly contributed to the development of the article, and other relevant contributions, should be acknowledged. Additionally, organizations that provided financial support or other resources should also be acknowledged. Authors bear the responsibility of informing and obtaining permission from individuals they intend to acknowledge in this section. The permission-seeking process should involve sharing information about the manuscript, including the intended acknowledgment, and seeking consent from the individuals concerned.


Including the names of authors on an article serves as a vital means of giving recognition to those who have made substantial contributions to the work. It also ensures transparency by clearly identifying individuals who bear responsibility for the integrity of the content.

For authors to be listed on an article, they must fulfill the following criteria:

  1. Made significant contributions to the reported work, whether in the conception, study design, execution, data acquisition, analysis, interpretation, or in all of these areas.
  2. Participated in drafting or writing the article, substantially revised it, or provided critical review.
  3. Agreed on the journal to which the article will be submitted.
  4. Reviewed and approved all versions of the article before submission, during the revision process, the final version accepted for publication, and any significant changes made during the proofing stage.
  5. Accept responsibility and be accountable for the content of the article, as well as share the responsibility to address any concerns or inquiries regarding the accuracy or integrity of the published work.

Any modifications to the authorship, whether before or after publication, must be agreed upon by all authors, including those being added or removed. The corresponding author bears the responsibility of obtaining confirmation from all co-authors and providing a comprehensive explanation for the necessity of the change. If an alteration in authorship is required after the publication of the article, it will be addressed through a post-publication notice. However, any changes in authorship must adhere to our authorship criteria, and requests for significant modifications to the authorship list after the article has been accepted may be declined if clear justifications and evidence of author contributions are not provided.

Authorship Criteria

Authorship credit should only be granted to individuals who have made substantial contributions to each of the three components outlined below:

  1. Concept and design of the study, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data.
  2. Drafting the article or critically revising it for important intellectual content.
  3. Providing final approval of the version to be published.

Participation solely in funding acquisition or data collection does not qualify for authorship. Merely overseeing the research group in a general supervisory role is insufficient for authorship attribution. Each contributor should have actively participated in the work to a significant extent, taking public responsibility for appropriate portions of the manuscript's content. The sequence of author names should reflect the relative contributions of each contributor to the study and the manuscript writing. Once a manuscript has been submitted, the order of authors cannot be altered without written consent from all contributors. The journal establishes a maximum number of authors allowed for manuscripts based on factors such as manuscript type, scope, and the number of institutions involved (details provided below). Authors should provide a justification if the number of authors exceeds these limits.

Contribution Details

Contributors should include a description of their contributions to the manuscript. As appropriate, the description should be divided into the following sections: concept, design, intellectual content definition, literature search, clinical studies, experimental studies, data acquisition, data analysis, statistical analysis, manuscript preparation, manuscript editing, and manuscript review. Any additional contribution information (for example, equal contribution) must be included. The contributions of the authors will be included alongside the article. One of the authors is identified as the paper's guarantor. The guarantor acknowledges complete responsibility for the work and/or study's conduct, had access to the data, and had a final decision on whether or not to publish.


For both research and non-research articles, it is essential to include citations to relevant, up-to-date, and verified literature. Whenever appropriate, peer-reviewed sources should be utilized to support the claims presented in the article. It is important to avoid excessive and inappropriate self-citation or engaging in prearrangements among author groups to manipulate citations. Such behavior is considered misconduct and is known as citation manipulation. You can refer to the guidance provided by COPE guidance on citation manipulation regarding citation manipulation.

If you are the author of a non-research article, such as a review or opinion article, it is crucial to ensure that the references you cite are relevant and provide an unbiased and comprehensive overview of the current state of research or scholarly work on the topic. Your reference selection should not unfairly favor a particular research group, organization, or journal. If you are unsure about whether to include a specific source as a citation, it is recommended to seek advice from the journal editorial office for guidance and clarification.

Conflicts of Interest/ Competing interests

It is mandatory for you and all co-authors to disclose any competing interests that are relevant to, or could be perceived as relevant to, the article.

  • A competing interest arises when you (or your employer, sponsor, or family/friends) have a financial, commercial, legal, or professional relationship with other organizations or individuals involved, which could potentially influence the research or interpretation of the results.
  • Competing interests can be either financial or non-financial in nature. To ensure transparency, it is important to disclose any associations that others may perceive as a competing interest.

Examples of financial competing interests include (but are not limited to):

  • Employment or voluntary involvement with an organization related to the content of the article.
  • Collaborations or affiliations with advocacy groups that are relevant to the subject matter of the article.
  • Grants received from an entity that has provided funding to the author or their organization.
  • Personal fees received by the author(s) as honoraria, royalties, consulting fees, lecture fees, testimonies, or other forms of compensation.
  • Patents held or pending by the authors, their institutions, funding organizations, or licensed to an entity, regardless of whether royalties are earned.
  • Royalties received by the authors or their institutions.
  • Ownership of stocks or shares in a company related to the article's topic.
  • Benefits received in connection with the development of products as a result of the work conducted.

Examples of non-financial competing interests include (but are not limited to):

  • Receiving medications, equipment, or data from a company that stands to profit financially or reputationally from the conclusions reported.
  • Serving on the boards of industry organizations or private corporations that may profit financially or reputationally from the published findings.
  • Receiving writing or administrative assistance from a person or group that may benefit from the published findings.
  • Competing personal, political, religious, ideological, academic, and intellectual interests that may be seen as important to the published information.
  • Participation in a work-related legal action.

All authors submitting a manuscript to the journal must complete a declaration of competing interests. This declaration will be included in the Disclosure section at the end of the article. In case of uncertainty regarding the need to disclose a competing interest, authors should seek guidance from their institution or the journal Editor to determine the appropriate course of action. If there are no competing interests to declare, the following statement will be included in the article: "The authors declare that they have no competing interests."

Sponsorship of clinical trials

Authors who are employed by pharmaceutical companies or other organizations that sponsor clinical trials must disclose this as a competing interest. Furthermore, authors should adhere to the Good Publication Practice guidelines for pharmaceutical companies (GPP3), These guidelines provide a framework to ensure responsible and ethical standards are upheld in the publication of research.

Corrections, expressions of concern, and retractions

In certain cases, it may become necessary to make changes to a published article. These changes will be made after thorough deliberation by the Editor, ensuring compliance with guidance from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Any necessary modifications to the published article will be accompanied by a post-publication notice, such as a Correction notice. This notice will be permanently linked to the original article, providing transparency and notifying readers of the changes made. The decision to make such changes will be made with careful consideration and in accordance with established procedures.

A Correction notice

If there is a need to rectify an error or omission in an article that could affect its interpretation but does not compromise its scholarly integrity, a Correction notice will be issued. This notice aims to address issues such as mislabeling of a figure or the absence of important information regarding funding or competing interests of the authors.

There are two sorts of correction notices used by the journal. A Corrigendum is usually issued to correct errors introduced by the authors, but an Erratum is usually issued to correct errors introduced by the publisher. Both forms of notes help to acknowledge and correct any mistakes or oversights in a published publication, assuring the research's dependability and clarity.

A Retraction notice

Will be issued in cases where a major error, such as flaws in analysis or methods, renders the conclusions of an article invalid. Additionally, retractions are also warranted when research misconduct or publication misconduct has occurred, such as the absence of required ethical approvals, fabrication of data, manipulation of images, plagiarism, or duplicate publication. The decision to retract an article will align with the guidelines established by the COPE guidelines. Authors and institutions may also request the retraction of their articles if their reasons meet the criteria for retraction.

To ensure transparency and accuracy, all retractions issued by the journal will adhere to the following principles:

  • The retraction notice will establish a clear link between the retracted article and the original article in both directions.
  • The retracted article will be unmistakably identified as such.
  • The original HTML version of the article will remain accessible, with both the HTML and PDF versions digitally watermarked as "Retracted."
  • A comprehensive explanation will be provided, clearly stating the reasons for the retraction.
  • The individual(s) responsible for requesting the retraction, such as the authors and/or the Editor, will be explicitly mentioned.

The primary objective of issuing retractions is to rectify the scientific literature and maintain the integrity of the publication record, rather than to serve as a form of punishment for authors.

Retractions are typically not employed to resolve authorship disputes. Instead, when faced with such disputes, the preferred approach is to issue a corrigendum, provided the authors can substantiate the proposed change in authorship with support from their respective institutions.

Efforts will be made to expedite the issuance of retractions in order to mitigate the impact of incorrect or misleading publications.

In certain instances where significant concerns, such as serious research or publication misconduct, have been raised, but the investigation outcome remains inconclusive or the investigation process is expected to be prolonged due to complexities, an Expression of Concern notice may be considered. Following the completion of the investigation, a Retraction or Correction notice may be issued alongside the original article, with all documents constituting a permanent part of the published record.

A Removal notice

In extremely rare cases where the issues cannot be resolved through a Retraction or Correction notice, a Removal notice will be issued. These circumstances may arise when the content of an article is deemed defamatory, infringes upon legal rights, or is subject to a court order. If an article needs to be removed from the journal's online platform, a removal notice will be published instead to inform readers about the removal of the article.

Consent for Publication

For any manuscripts containing details or images pertaining to an individual, it is necessary to obtain written informed consent from that individual (or their parent/legal guardian for individuals under 18 years of age) for the publication of such details. The consent obtained should specifically cover the publication of their information under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, ensuring that it will be freely accessible on the internet. In cases where the individual has passed away, consent for publication must be obtained from their next of kin. The manuscript must explicitly state that written informed consent for publication was obtained.

Authors may utilize a consent form, either provided by their institution or appropriate for their region, to obtain the required consent for publication. The consent form should clearly indicate that the details and images will be freely available on the internet and may be accessible to the general public. If requested, the consent form must be made available to the Editor and will be handled confidentially.


A submitted manuscript is considered confidential and will be handled as such by Academic Journals. The manuscript will not be disclosed to anyone except individuals involved in the processing and preparation of the manuscript for potential publication. This includes editorial staff, corresponding authors, potential reviewers, actual reviewers, and editors. However, in cases where misconduct is suspected, the manuscript may be shared with Academic Journals' ethics committees and relevant institutions/organizations for the purpose of resolving the misconduct. Academic Journals will adhere to the appropriate COPE flowcharts as necessary.

Confidentiality will be maintained throughout the investigation of an ethical query, involving the submitted manuscript, authors, reviewers, and any other individuals, including whistleblowers. In the course of an investigation, the Editor may need to share information with third parties, such as ethics committees and the authors' institutions, to properly address the matter.

Copyright Policy

When the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree automatically to transfer the copyright to the IJEMD-M, under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Who Can Submit?

Submissions to IJEMD-M are open to anyone who possesses the copyright to the original article being submitted or is duly authorized by the copyright owner(s) to make the submission. Authors are generally the initial owners of the copyrights to their works. However, it is important to note that in certain non-academic contexts, authors may have agreed to transfer their copyright to their employer as a condition of their employment.

User Rights

IJEMD-M is an Open Access journal. Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles under the following conditions: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Copyright statement stated here and embedded in each published article.

Data falsification/fabrication

Data falsification or fabrication involves deliberately manipulating or creating data inappropriately. It is a severe form of misconduct that aims to deceive others and undermine the integrity of the scholarly record, leading to significant and enduring consequences.

Authors submitting manuscripts to the journal have the responsibility to ensure the accuracy and integrity of the data presented in their work. To facilitate the evaluation process, authors are expected to retain all raw data underlying their manuscripts.

In cases where the original data cannot be provided upon request, the manuscript may be rejected for acceptance or a published paper may be retracted. This emphasizes the importance of maintaining transparency and upholding the highest standards of data integrity in scholarly publications.

Desk rejection policy

The desk rejection policy of the journal includes the following criteria for rejecting manuscripts without external review:

  1. Lack of relevance: The topic or scope of the study does not align with the field covered by the journal.
  2. Publication ethics issues: Non-compliance with international standard guidelines, such as plagiarism exceeding a similarity index of 20%.
  3. Insufficient impact or contribution: The study does not have significant impact or fails to provide new knowledge to the field.
  4. Flawed study design: There are flaws or limitations in the design of the study.
  5. Unclear objective: The objective of the study is not clearly stated or lacks clarity.
  6. Organizational problems: Issues with the structure or missing components of the study.
  7. Writing and grammar issues: Problems with writing style, grammar, or series of infelicities.
  8. Non-compliance with submission guidelines: The manuscript does not adhere to the specific submission guidelines provided by the journal.

When a manuscript meets any of these criteria, it may be rejected without undergoing the full external review process.

Duplicate submission/publication

Authors are obligated to declare during the submission process that their manuscript is not under consideration elsewhere. Detecting a duplicate submission or publication is usually seen as an intentional action. This also applies to articles previously published in a different language.

For permissible secondary submissions or publications, such as translating an article into English, authors must obtain permission from the publisher and copyright holder of the original article. Additionally, they must inform the Editor of the receiving journal about the publication history of the original article. It is essential to explicitly indicate to readers that the article is a translated version, providing a citation to the original article. This aligns with the guidance provided by the ICMJE guidance.


Authors are required to disclose all sources of funding, including any financial support received, in their manuscript. It is important for authors to accurately describe the role of the sponsor(s), if applicable, in various stages ranging from study design to the submission of the manuscript for publication. If the sponsor(s) had no involvement in these stages, this should also be stated.

Authors should ensure that the funding information provided is accurate and complies with the requirements of their respective funders. It is important to adhere to the guidelines and regulations set forth by the funding organizations.

Images and figures

When including images and figures in your article, it is important to ensure that they are relevant and add value to the scholarly work. Avoid using purely illustrative content that does not contribute meaningfully to the article.

As part of the Journal Author Publishing Agreement, you are responsible for obtaining written permission to include any material in your article that is owned and copyrighted by a third party. This includes proprietary text, illustrations, tables, and other types of material, such as data, audio, video, film stills, screenshots, and musical notation, as well as any supplemental material.

Authors should be mindful of cultural sensitivities and restrictions related to the use of images. For example, some cultures may have restrictions on depicting human remains or deceased individuals. It is important to adhere to appropriate ethical guidelines and consider the views and approval processes of the communities involved.

Photographic images obtained from experiments, including microscopy, should accurately represent the original image. If any modifications or enhancements have been made, it must be clearly stated in the manuscript and figure legend to avoid misleading readers. Authors should be prepared to provide the original, unprocessed images to the journal editorial office upon request.

Modifications to images are acceptable if they are minor in nature and applied uniformly to the entire image. Authors must provide details of the image-gathering methods and any modifications made, including the name and version number of the software used. Modifications that can alter the scientific interpretation of the image are not allowed.

If you use images or figures from another published source, you must obtain appropriate permissions for reuse from the copyright owner. The figure legend should include a statement confirming the obtained permissions, and the original source of the image must be cited, even if the image is not under copyright or if reuse is allowed under a license that permits unrestricted use.


The journal considers all forms of misconduct to be serious and will take appropriate action, following COPE guidelines, to safeguard the integrity of the scholarly record.

Examples of misconduct that are taken seriously by the journal include, but are not limited to:

  1. Affiliation misrepresentation: Misrepresenting one's institutional affiliation or association with an organization in order to gain undue credibility or recognition.
  2. Breaches in copyright/use of third-party material without appropriate permissions: Unauthorized use of copyrighted material, such as text, images, or other content, without obtaining the necessary permissions from the copyright holder.
  3. Citation manipulation: Manipulating citations to artificially increase the visibility or impact of a particular work or to mislead readers.
  4. Duplicate submission/publication: Submitting or publishing the same manuscript or substantial parts of it in multiple journals, either simultaneously or sequentially, without proper acknowledgment or permission.
  5. "Ethics dumping": Conducting research in a manner that exploits vulnerable populations or circumvents ethical standards in one country or context by conducting the research in another country or context.
  6. Image or data manipulation/fabrication: Manipulating or fabricating images or data to mislead readers or present false results.
  7. Peer review manipulation: Manipulating the peer review process, such as suggesting biased or unqualified reviewers, influencing reviewers' opinions, or engaging in fraudulent reviewer activities.
  8. Plagiarism: Presenting someone else's work, ideas, or words as one's own without proper citation or acknowledgment.
  9. Text-recycling/self-plagiarism: Reusing significant portions of one's own previously published work without appropriate citation or acknowledgment.
  10. Undisclosed competing interests: Failing to disclose financial, commercial, or other competing interests that could potentially influence the research or interpretation of the results.
  11. Unethical research: Conducting research that violates ethical principles or standards, such as conducting experiments without proper informed consent, fabricating or falsifying data, or failing to follow ethical guidelines and regulations.

The journal is committed to addressing and preventing misconduct, and any substantiated cases will be dealt with accordingly, following established guidelines and procedures.

Duplicate Submission

The journal strictly prohibits duplicate submission and publication. If a manuscript is found to have been previously published or is under review elsewhere, appropriate sanctions will be applied. In cases where authors have utilized their own previously published work or work under review as the foundation for a submitted manuscript, they must clearly cite the previous work and explain how their submitted manuscript adds new and original contributions beyond what was presented in the previous work. This ensures transparency and acknowledges the novelty of the current submission.

Citation Manipulation

The journal strictly prohibits citation manipulation, which involves including citations in a manuscript with the sole purpose of artificially inflating the number of citations to a particular author's work or articles published in a specific journal. Such practices are considered unethical and can lead to sanctions. The journal promotes the use of citations for valid and genuine scholarly purposes, such as providing appropriate credit to prior research and supporting the arguments and findings presented in the manuscript.

Data Fabrication and Falsification

The journal maintains a strong stance against data fabrication and falsification, which involves intentionally fabricating or falsifying experimental results, including the manipulation of images. Such misconduct seriously undermines the integrity of the scientific record and is considered a severe violation of ethical standards. If a submitted manuscript is found to contain fabricated or falsified data, appropriate sanctions will be imposed to ensure the reliability and trustworthiness of published research. The journal is committed to upholding the highest standards of scientific integrity and promoting honest and transparent reporting of research findings.

Improper Author Contribution or Attribution

All listed authors must have made a significant scientific contribution to the research in the manuscript and approved all its claims. It is important to list everyone who made a significant scientific contribution, including students and laboratory technicians.

Redundant Publications

Redundant publications occur when the outcomes of a single study are divided and published as multiple articles, which can lead to an unnecessary duplication of scientific literature.

Image manipulation

The journal strictly prohibits image manipulation that is intended to deceive or mislead readers. Image manipulation refers to any deliberate actions taken to inappropriately alter or fabricate an image, which can have severe consequences for the integrity of the scholarly record. Authors are expected to provide accurate and unmanipulated images in their manuscripts. Any modifications made to images must be clearly disclosed and justified. While adjustments to brightness, contrast, or color balance are permissible as long as they do not distort or misrepresent the original information, specific features within an image should not be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced without appropriate notification. In cases where multiple images are combined into a single figure, such as gels, western blots, or microscope images, it is essential to clearly indicate the arrangement in the figure or the accompanying figure legend. If requested, authors must be able to provide the original, unedited images for verification. Failure to produce the original images may result in the rejection or retraction of the manuscript or paper.

Open Access Policy

The journal is an Open Access journal. Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles under the following conditions: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

CC-BY License

The journal offers authors the option to publish their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license, particularly for articles funded by specific organizations listed here. The CC-BY license allows for the reuse of the published work for commercial purposes, while still requiring proper attribution to the original source. Authors who choose to publish under the CC-BY license are considered to be utilizing the Open Access facility and are responsible for covering the associated publication costs. Prior to publication, authors will be required to sign an Open Access license agreement. Under this arrangement, published articles are freely available online without any subscription barriers. Users of these articles are permitted to use, reproduce, disseminate, or display the work as long as proper attribution is given to the original author(s) and the journal as the original place of publication. When reproducing or disseminating the work partially or as a derivative, this should be clearly indicated. Authors are also allowed to deposit the final electronic version of the article into institutional or subject repositories, provided they include a link to the published version on the journal's website and attribute the journal as the original place of publication. The CC-BY license aims to facilitate open access and encourage the unrestricted use of original works for personal, research, and educational purposes.

Publication Ethics

International Journal of Emerging Multidisciplinaries emphasizes the importance of upholding high standards of publication ethics. Authors submitting manuscripts to the journal are required to ensure the originality of their work and confirm that the manuscript has not been previously published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Authors should be cautious about using text, tables, figures, or any other content from another publication without proper permission or appropriate attribution, as it may constitute plagiarism. Similarly, using one's own previously published work without proper acknowledgment can be considered self-plagiarism. To ensure the originality of submitted papers, the journal employs plagiarism detection software to identify potential cases of plagiarism. In the event of an allegation of plagiarism, a thorough investigation will be conducted in accordance with the guidelines provided by the Commission on Publication Ethics (COPE) . The journal and its editorial board are committed to adhering to the policies and principles outlined by COPE, further ensuring ethical publication practices and maintaining the integrity of the scholarly record.

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Duties of Editors

Publication decisions

As the responsible authority for publication decisions, the editorial board of the journal has the duty to determine which submitted articles should be published. The board carefully reviews the manuscripts and takes into consideration the recommendations provided by reviewers. However, it is important to note that the editorial decisions are based solely on the scientific merit and quality of the work, and they are not influenced by any factors such as the authors' nationality, ethnicity, political beliefs, race, or religion. While making publication decisions, the editorial board also takes into account legal requirements concerning issues like libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. These considerations ensure that the published content adheres to legal and ethical standards. The journal's editorial board operates with a commitment to fairness, impartiality, and integrity, focusing on the scientific quality and integrity of the research rather than any personal or demographic factors of the authors.

Confidentiality, disclosure, and conflicts of interest

Editors are required to maintain confidentiality during the manuscript review process, refraining from sharing any details about the submission with individuals other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, and other editorial advisors. Unpublished materials presented in a submitted manuscript should not be utilized in an editor's, reviewer's, or any reader's personal research without obtaining explicit written permission from the author. It is important to provide readers with information about the funding sources for the research or scholarly work, and to disclose whether these funders played a role in the research and its publication, specifying their level of involvement.

Author relations

Editors make every effort to uphold the principles of fairness, impartiality, and efficiency in the peer review process of the journal. To maintain an unbiased review process, the journal has implemented specific policies regarding submissions from members of the editorial board. Author instructions are provided to offer clear guidance on the criteria for authorship, assisting authors in understanding the requirements for their involvement in a manuscript.

Reviewer relations

The Journal actively encourages reviewers to address ethical concerns and potential misconduct that may arise from submissions. These can include issues such as unethical research design, inappropriate data manipulation, redundant publication, and plagiarism. Reviewers are also advised to be attentive to these matters during their assessment process. Generally, reviewers' comments should be shared with authors in their entirety, except in cases where offensive or libelous remarks are present. The contributions of reviewers to the journal are duly recognized and appreciated. However, the journal maintains a standard of quality and professionalism in the review process. Reviewers who consistently provide discourteous, low-quality, or delayed reviews may no longer be engaged for future reviews.

Quality assurance

Editors have a responsibility to uphold the quality of the content they publish, understanding that different sections may have distinct objectives and standards. They should make efforts to verify that the research they publish has received approval from an appropriate body, such as a research ethics committee or institutional review board, whenever such oversight exists. Editors should also be vigilant regarding intellectual property concerns and collaborate with publishers to address any potential violations of laws and conventions in this regard. In cases where errors, inaccuracies, or misleading statements are identified, prompt and prominent corrections should be made.

Duties of Reviewers

Contribution to editorial decisions

Reviewers play a vital role in assisting the editorial board with making informed editorial decisions. It is expected that reviewers conduct their reviews objectively, without bias, and provide clear and well-founded observations. These observations should be formulated in a manner that allows authors to understand and utilize them to enhance their paper. It is important to note that personal criticism of the author is not appropriate in the review process. Reviewers should focus on the content and quality of the manuscript rather than targeting the author personally. The emphasis should be on constructive feedback aimed at improving the paper's scholarly value.

Qualification of reviewers

Reviewers should promptly notify the editor if they lack expertise or time to conduct a thorough review. This ensures high-quality and efficient reviews. Additionally, reviewers must avoid conflicts of interest by refraining from assessing manuscripts connected to authors, companies, or institutions with whom they have competitive, collaborative, or other relationships. Impartiality and integrity are essential for a fair review process.


Reviewers must treat all received manuscripts as confidential documents. Any privileged information or ideas obtained during the peer review process should be kept confidential and not used for personal gain. Maintaining confidentiality is crucial to preserve the integrity and trustworthiness of the review process.

Acknowledgment of sources

Reviewers should identify pertinent published works that have not been cited by the authors. When referencing the ideas or findings of others, reviewers should provide the appropriate citations. If a reviewer is aware of significant similarities or overlap between the manuscript being reviewed and any other published paper, they should promptly bring this to the attention of the editor, based on their personal knowledge. By acknowledging sources and detecting potential overlap, reviewers contribute to the integrity and originality of the research.

Duties of Authors

Reporting standards

Authors of original research reports should provide an accurate and objective account of the conducted work and its significance. The representation of underlying data in the paper should be precise. Authors should be willing to make the raw data publicly accessible and retain it for a minimum of two years following publication. Any fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements are considered unethical and unacceptable. Adhering to reporting standards ensures the integrity and reliability of scientific research.

Originality, plagiarism, and concurrent publication

Authors are responsible for ensuring that their work is completely original and that they properly attribute the work and words of others. Plagiarism, in any form, is considered unethical and unacceptable in publishing. It is unethical to submit the same manuscript to multiple journals simultaneously, and such behavior is not tolerated. Maintaining originality, avoiding plagiarism, and adhering to ethical practices are essential for responsible and reputable publishing.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest

All authors are required to disclose any financial or other significant conflicts of interest in their manuscript that could potentially influence the results or interpretation of the research. Additionally, all sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed. Transparent disclosure of conflicts of interest and funding sources contributes to the integrity and credibility of the manuscript.

Authorship of the paper

The corresponding author bears the responsibility of ensuring that the paper includes all appropriate co-authors and excludes any inappropriate ones. It is also the corresponding author's duty to ensure that all co-authors have reviewed and approved the final version of the paper and have consented to its submission for publication. Individuals who have made substantial contributions to the research should be listed as co-authors. Those who have participated in significant aspects of the research project but do not meet the criteria for authorship should be acknowledged or listed as contributors. The guidelines for authorship contribute to fairness, transparency, and recognition of scholarly contributions.

Fundamental errors in published works

If an author identifies a substantial error or inaccuracy in their published work, it is their responsibility to promptly inform the journal editor. The author should collaborate with the editor to retract or correct the paper as necessary. Timely rectification of fundamental errors contributes to maintaining the integrity and credibility of the published literature.

Peer review process

Manuscripts undergo rigorous peer review to ensure academic excellence. Approved submissions are reviewed anonymously by experts (Single-blind peer review). Publication acceptance requires at least two positive reviews. Reviewers' identities are confidential. For submissions with ethical or societal implications, our Research Integrity team may seek external advice. Expert consultations and input from the academic editor guide decisions, including involving specialized reviewers or additional editors. This ensures thorough evaluation and responsible decision-making.

By submitting a manuscript, the following implications are understood:

  • The manuscript has not been previously published or is not under consideration elsewhere.
  • All co-authors and responsible authorities or institutions have approved the manuscript.
  • The manuscript undergoes blind peer review after initial acceptance by the editors-in-chief, assistants, and editorial board.
  • The final decision on publication rests with the Editors and Editorial Board in cases of controversy.
  • Upon acceptance, authors agree to automatically transfer the copyright to the publisher.


Plagiarism is checked using Crossref iThenticate. Our journal strictly prohibits plagiarism, which includes the unauthorized use of others' ideas, words, or work without proper acknowledgment. Submissions that contain plagiarism, whether in whole or in part, duplicate or redundant publication, or self-plagiarism (in the same or different languages), will be rejected. Please note that submissions to preprint archives will not be considered as duplicate publications. The corresponding author assumes responsibility for the manuscript throughout the evaluation and publication process, acting on behalf of all co-authors. In order to ensure originality, all submitted manuscripts are subjected to a comprehensive plagiarism check using iThenticate software. If a manuscript exhibits an unacceptable similarity index due to plagiarism, exceeding 20%, it will be promptly rejected.

Preprints policy

Authors are permitted to freely share their preprints at any time and through any platform. If their preprint is subsequently accepted for publication, we encourage authors to include a link from the preprint to the formal publication using its Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Additionally, authors have the option to update their preprints on platforms like arXiv or RePEc with their accepted manuscripts.

Protection of Patients' Rights to Privacy

Identifying information, including names and other personal details, should not be disclosed in written descriptions, photographs, sonograms, CT scans, pedigrees, or any other forms of publication, unless it is crucial for scientific purposes and informed consent from the patient (or parent/guardian, if applicable) has been obtained. Authors are required to remove patients' names from figures unless explicit informed consent has been acquired. Our journal adheres to the guidelines set by the ICMJE to ensure the protection of patients' privacy rights:

  1. Authors are responsible for obtaining patient consent forms prior to publication and ensuring proper archiving of the forms. It is important to note that consent forms should not be uploaded with the cover letter or sent via email to editorial or publisher offices.
  2. In cases where the manuscript includes patient images that cannot guarantee anonymity or contains descriptions that may reveal the patient's identity, the manuscript should include a statement acknowledging the acquisition of informed patient consent.

Standards of reporting

To facilitate verification and reproducibility, it is essential that research is communicated in a manner that supports these goals. Therefore, we strongly encourage authors to provide comprehensive descriptions of their research, including the rationale, protocol, methodology, and analysis. By adhering to these reporting standards, authors contribute to the transparency and integrity of their work, enabling others to evaluate and replicate their findings effectively.

Use of third-party material

Prior permission is required to reuse third-party material in your article. This includes, but is not limited to, text, illustrations, photographs, tables, data, audio, video, film stills, screenshots, or musical notation. While short extracts of text and certain other materials may be permitted for criticism and review purposes without formal permission, it is essential to secure written permission from the copyright owner for any material not covered by this informal agreement. If you plan to include such material in your paper, please obtain the necessary permissions before submission.